Hejaz, Najd and its extensions was the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia before September 23, 1932 AD or 17 Jumada al-Awwal in 1351 AH, when King Abdulaziz unified it by the Royal Decree No. 2716 and made it the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with its borders that we know today.

In 2005, King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz decided that September 23 is an official holiday in the Kingdom to celebrate the Saudi National Day, and since that day, Saudis celebrate it with folklore dances, songs and traditional festivals throughout the Kingdom.

A long journey crowned with success and unity

However, the unification of the Kingdom was not an easy journey; rather it was a long one and had several stages. In 1744, Muhammad bin Saud and Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab allied and established the Emirate of Diriyah, and the House of Saud succeeded in ending the long wars and uniting Najd after many years of disagreement.

This act angered the Ottoman Empire, which ordered Muhammad Ali Pasha, the governor of Egypt, to eliminate the first Saudi state in 1818, and they achieved this.

The Saudis did not surrender, and with Prince Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Saud they followed their first state by the second and established the Emirate of Najd, and this time the Egyptian garrison surrendered to the forces of Prince Turki in 1824. This principality remained shaky until 1891 when Al Rasheed family ended it, and the Saud family left for Kuwait.

In 1902, Abdulaziz Al Saud came and established a third Saudi state, which later turned into the Sultanate of Najd and expanded to include the Hijaz and its extensions, and when all of its lands were united, it became the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.

Likewise, the title of ruler in the kingdom changed from prince to sultan and finally to king. Other titles were even given to him, such as the Bismarck of Arabia, “Cromwell of the Desert”, and “A Modern Solomon”.

The founding king

Abdulaziz Al Saud was born in January 1876, and he was forced to flee with his family to Kuwait after Al Rasheed family, the rulers of Hail, defeated the second Saudi state.

His father was Abd al-Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki Al Saud, and his mother was Sarah bint Ahmed al-Kabir al-Sudairy, and Abdul Aziz’s journey began through a campaign of 60 people who left Kuwait and pledged allegiance to him and went to Riyadh, which he reconquered in 1902.

Two years after Riyadh, Abdulaziz took control of Hail and defeated Al Rasheed in the Battle of Al-Shanana, thus extending his hand over Al-Qassim and most of Najd. In 1912, a movement (Ikhwan “brothers” Who Obeyed God) was established and formed from the sons of the Bedouin tribes who left their tribes and lived alone and allied with Abdulaziz and contributed in his conquests

Then, in 1913, Abdulaziz went to Al-Ahsa and liberated it from the Ottomans, and in 1921, a campaign led by Prince Faisal bin Ali took Asir under control. A year later, he snatched Hail from the grip of the Al-Rasheed family and extended his control over the entire Najd, and in this year, he called himself the Sultan of Najd.

Abdulaziz continued towards the Hijaz and besieged Jeddah until December 17, 1925, while he had entered Taif and Mecca a year earlier. In addition, in 1926, Abdulaziz was pledged king of the Hijaz in the Grand Mosque, thus becoming the King of Hijaz and the Sultan of Najd, and that remained until the announcement of the establishment of the Saudi state on September 23, 1932, which is the Saudi National Day.

Abdulaziz decided to lay the foundations of the state and stop marching and recognize the borders of Jordan, Kuwait and Iraq, and this is what made the Ikhwan oppose it and launch attacks on the borders of Iraq until Abdulaziz defeated them in Zulfa and they withdrew to Kuwait.

A day with green and white all over the kingdom

Since the 23rd of September was declared a public holiday, the Saudis have lived the festivities in their height on this day, the General Authority for Culture and Entertainment prepares every year an impressive plan and program of events that make this day a real season of gratification.

And there has become what is called the (National Day season), which is one of the seasons that are held to celebrate the National Day of the kingdom over a week ending on September 23, and includes various activities in different Saudi cities and in various forms, from fireworks shows to singing concerts, exhibitions, tours, theatrical performances and many others.

As for the Saudis themselves, they celebrate the kingdom’s National Day in various forms, either by dressing up by wearing green clothes and gowns, carrying green and white flags and balloons, and buying scarves and badges bearing images of the flag or the king and the crown prince.

Of course, the sweets on this day are distinctive, as they carry the image of the Crown Prince, the King, and the Saudi flag. Every year a complete visual identity related to the occasion is presented under different slogans, where the last slogan was (Himma hatta al qimma “mettle until the summit”).

On this day, historical tourist places are full of visitors, especially those related to the history of the Kingdom, which narrate the history of the establishment, while some people prefer to exchange visits and take advantage of the holiday on trips to different regions of the Kingdom and away from the city and its noise.

Finally, some people on this day exchange special gifts for this occasion, including chocolate, sweets, and of course, roses have their place on this day, especially in formal greetings … As we are accustomed in Florinta, we are always ready to fulfill your desires and be a messenger of joy and flowers.